Identification of Salmonella typhi contamination by amplification fliC gene in grass-jelly from traditional markets and minimarket in Semarang city

Main Article Content

Aditya Rahman Ernanto Junita Rensa Palimbongan Anjar Richardo Manufandu Sri Darmawati

Abstract

Grass-jelly is one of the most popular plants consumed by people in various forms. Contamination can cause various diseases, one of those is typhoid fever by Salmonella typhi. The purpose of this study was to detect S. typhi in grass-jelly based on molecular detection by amplification of the fliC gene using PCR. Validation was done by culture methods on SSA media and biochemical testing. The fliC gene amplification results in grass-jelly samples (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, and C3) showed the DNA fragments size of about 1500 bp. Colony and biochemical characters isolate Peterongan were lead to S. typhi, whereas another isolate was another Salmonella spp. Grass-jelly samples from the Peterongan market in Semarang were positively contaminated by S. typhi and isolate from Pedurungan and the minimarket was another Salmonella spp. Molecular-based food testing is fast enough and accurate for detecting types of bacterial contaminants but the amplification of only the fliC gene cannot specific for S. typhi.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ernanto, A., Palimbongan, J., Manufandu, A., & Darmawati, S. (2020). Identification of Salmonella typhi contamination by amplification fliC gene in grass-jelly from traditional markets and minimarket in Semarang city. Jurnal Teknologi Laboratorium, 9(2), 136-144. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.29238/teknolabjournal.v9i2.207
Section
Bacteriology
Author Biographies

Aditya Rahman Ernanto, Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia

Picture11.png

Aditya Rahman ERNANTO. He graduated from Universitas Gadjah Mada, Faculty of Biology in 2017, focused study on Genetics and Molecular Biology. He worked as a lecturer in Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, Faculty of Nursing and Health Science since 2018 focus study on Molecular Biology and Microbiology.

Junita Rensa Palimbongan, Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Nursing and Health, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, Indonesia

Picture11.jpg

Junita Rensa PALIMBONGAN. She was born in Nabire, Papua in 1996. She graduated from D-IV Technology Laboratory Technology Faculty of Nursing and Health Science in 2019. She is working in The General Hospital of the Nabire, Papua district.

Anjar Richardo Manufandu, Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Nursing and Health, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, Indonesia

Picture12.jpg

Anjar Richardo MANUFANDU. He has been an undergraduate student in D-IV Technology Laboratory Technology Faculty of Nursing and Health Science since 2017. He works as an assistant laboratory in Molecular Biology Laboratory.

Sri Darmawati, Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Nursing and Health, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, Indonesia

Picture12.png

Sri DARMAWATI. She is an associate professor in the Medical Laboratory Science Magister Program Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, a lecturer, and researcher on Microbiology and Biomolecular field. She was passionate about research on the special genetic diversity of Salmonella typhi.

References

1. Pitojo S, Zumiati. Cincau : Cara Pembuatan Dan Variasi Olahannya. Tangerang: PT. Agromedia Pustaka; 2005.
2. Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih. Cincau Hitam. Surabaya: Trubus Agrisarana; 2007.
3. Sapers GM. Disinfection of Contaminated Produce with Conventional Washing and Sanitizing Technology. In: The Produce Contamination Problem. Second Edi. Elsevier; 2014:389-431. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-404611-5.00017-8.
4. Muslina S. Identifikasi Salmonella sp. Pada Cincau yang Dijual Di Pasar Wonodri Semarang Selatan. 2005.
5. Gasem MH, Dolmans WMVWM V., Keuter MM, Djokomoeljanto RR. Poor food hygiene and housing as risk factors for typhoid fever in Semarang, Indonesia. Trop Med Int Heal. 2001;6(6):484-490. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3156.2001.00734.x.
6. BPOM. Summary for Policymakers. In: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. Climate Change 2013 - The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2019:1-30. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.
7. Eng S-K, Pusparajah P, Ab Mutalib N-S, Ser H-L, Chan K-G, Lee L-H. Salmonella : A review on pathogenesis, epidemiology and antibiotic resistance. Front Life Sci. 2015;8(3):284-293. doi:10.1080/21553769.2015.1051243.
8. Abatcha MG, Zakaria Z, Goni DM, Kaur DG. Typing of Salmonella Species: A Mini-Review. J Nat Sci Res. 2014;4(5):13-17.
9. Hall GS, Woods GL. Chapter 58 - Medical Bacteriology. Twenty Thi. Elsevier Inc.; 2017. doi:10.1016/B978-0-323-29568-0.00058-9.
10. Brenner FW, Villar RG, Angulo FJ, Tauxe R, Swaminathan B. Salmonella nomenclature. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38(7):2465-2467. doi:10.1128/JCM.38.7.2465-2467.2000.
11. McQuiston JR, Parrenas R, Ortiz-Rivera M, Gheesling L, Brenner F, Fields PI. Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of Flagellin Genes fliC, fljB, and flpA from Salmonella. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42(5):1923-1932. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.5.1923-1932.2004.
12. Baker S, Holt K, van de Vosse E, et al. High-Throughput Genotyping of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Allowing Geographical Assignment of Haplotypes and Pathotypes within an Urban District of Jakarta, Indonesia. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46(5):1741-1746. doi:10.1128/JCM.02249-07.
13. Darmawati S, Prastiyanto ME. Analisis Kekerabatan Salmonella typhi Asal Jateng dan Yogyakarta Berdasarkan Sekuens Gen Flagellin fliC. 2014:148-156.
14. Lau SKP, Woo PCY, Chan CYF, Woo W-L, Woo GKS, Yuen K-Y. Typhoid Fever Associated with Acute Appendicitis Caused by an H1-j Strain of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43(3):1470-1472. doi:10.1128/JCM.43.3.1470-1472.2005.
15. Bikandi J, Millan RS, Rementeria A, Garaizar J. In silico analysis of complete bacterial genomes: PCR, AFLP-PCR and endonuclease restriction. Bioinformatics. 2004;20(5):798-799. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btg491.
16. Schreiber F, Kay S, Frankel G, et al. The Hd, Hj, and Hz66 flagella variants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi modify host responses and cellular interactions. Sci Rep. 2015;5(1):7947. doi:10.1038/srep07947.
17. Parkhill J, Dougan G, James KD. Parkhill J, Dougan G, James KD, et al Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18. Nature. 2001;413(October):848–852. doi:10.1038/35101607.
18. Hermono BAS, Bintari SH, Mustikaningtyas D. Identifikasi Salmonella sp Pada Jajanan Jus Buah di Kecamatan Gunungpati Semarang dengan PCR. J MIPA. 2017;40(2):68-73.
19. Garrity GM. Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, Second edition. Volume two: The Proteobacteria, Part B: Gammaproteobacteria. Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 2005;2:883-904.
20. Woo PCY, Fung AMY, Wong SSY, Tsoi H-W, Yuen K-Y. Isolation and Characterization of a Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Variant and Its Clinical and Public Health Implications. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39(3):1190-1194. doi:10.1128/JCM.39.3.1190-1194.2001.
21. Waturangi DE, Wiratama E, Theresia AS. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from ice and beverages in Jakarta, Indonesia. BMC Res Notes. 2019;12(1):45. doi:10.1186/s13104-019-4065-y.
22. Nadkarni MA, Martin FE, Jacques NA, Hunter N. Determination of bacterial load by real-time PCR using a broad-range (universal) probe and primers set. Microbiology. 2002;148(1):257-266. doi:10.1099/00221287-148-1-257.
23. Botes M, de Kwaadsteniet M, Cloete TE. Application of quantitative PCR for the detection of microorganisms in water. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405(1):91-108. doi:10.1007/s00216-012-6399-3.
24. Gunawan AP, Djuminar A, Ernawati E, Chaidir L. Pengembangan Prekultur Oxgall sebagai Sampel Klinis untuk Deteksi Salmonella typhi dengan Metode Real-time PCR. J Teknol Lab. 2018;7(2):71-77. doi:10.29238/teknolabjournal.v7i2.127.
25. Kralik P, Ricchi M. A Basic Guide to Real Time PCR in Microbial Diagnostics: Definitions, Parameters, and Everything. Front Microbiol. 2017;8(FEB):1-9. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.00108.
26. Prasetyo A. Analisis Good Manufacturing Practice Olahan Pangan. Jakarta: Indocamp; 2017.
27. Winarno FG. GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) : Cara Pengolahan Pangan Yang Baik. Bogor: M-Brio Press; 2011.